Glossary

  • AIP (Autologous Insulin Producing) cells may be harvested from a patient and treated or expanded and introduced back into the same patient. This patient-specific, or autologous, method has historically been favored due to the lack of required immunologic matching.
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder, cause usually by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors, and resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). DM results following impaired insulin production by the pancreatic islet cells. The most common types of the disease are type-1 DM (T1DM) and type-2 DM (T2DM).
  • IDDM (Insulin Depended Diabetes Mellitus) is a medical term that describes diabetes mellitus that requires insulin therapy to avoid ketoacidosis. IDDM is often considered a synonym for juvenile diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus, though the three terms are not entirely congruent: Juvenile diabetes is considered an unsatisfactory and somewhat obsolete term because type 1 diabetes can develop in adults, and type 2 can occur in children. IDDM includes type 1 diabetes, but as type 2 diabetes progresses, in some people it may reach a degree of insulin deficiency that requires insulin treatment.
  • Islet Cell The pancreas contains clusters of cells that produce hormones. These clusters are known as islets. There are several different types of cells in an islet. For example, alpha cells make the hormone glucagon, which raises the glucose (a type of sugar) level in the blood. Beta cells make the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose level. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly destroys the beta cells. This causes the pancreas to lose the ability to make insulin.
  • Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus as a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate.. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal.


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